Gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are major malignant diseases of alimentary tract. While GC is the most common cancer in the Asian-Pacific region, CRC is ranked as the fourth most common malignancy world-wide, with about 1.2 million new cases and 609,051 deaths annually. Surgical resection with or without adjuvant chemo- and/or radiation therapy remains the key modality for GC and CRC, but unfortunately shows limited clinical benefits due to high rate of tumor metastasis. Although current adjuvant chemo-radiation therapy has been shown to extend patient survival in the presence of recurrent lesions, severe side effects usually limit the efficacy of this anticancer modality. To further improve the overall survival for CRC patients, it is critical to explore novel approaches to control tumor metastasis with or without the use of traditional chemo-and/or radiotherapy.
Non-small cell lung cancer constitutes about 85% of all newly diagnosed cases of lung cancer and continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Standard treatment for this devastating disease, such as systemic chemotherapy, has reached a plateau in effectiveness and comes with considerable toxicities. For all stages of disease fewer than 20% of patients are alive 5 years after diagnosis; for metastatic disease the median survival is less than one year. Until now, the success of active-specific immunotherapy for all tumor types has been sporadic and unpredictable. However, the active-specific stimulation of the host’s own immune system still holds great promise for achieving nontoxic and durable anti-tumor responses.
Ovarian cancer has emerged as one of the most common malignancies affecting women in India. The present communication reports the trends in the incidence rate of ovarian cancer for Indian women. The data published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for various Indian registries for different periods and / or publication by the individual registries served as the source material. Mean annual percentage change (MAPC) in rates was computed using relative differences between two time periods. During the period 2001-06, the age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) for ovarian cancer varied from 0.9 to 8.4 per 100,000 person years amongst various registries. The highest incidence was noted in Pune and Delhi registries. The Age Specific Incidence Rate (ASIR) for ovarian cancer revealed that the disease increases from 35 years of age and reaches a peak between the ages 55-64.
Prostate cancer has become a major health problem in industrialised world during the last decades of the 20th century contributing to three fourth of the registered cases across the globe. Incidence rates of prostate cancer vary by more than 25 fold worldwide, the highest rates being in Australia/ New Zealand (104.2/100,000), Western and Northern Europe, North America, largely because the practice of PSA has become widespread in those regions. Although incidence rates of prostate cancer are considered low in Asian and North African countries, ranging from 1 to 9/100,000 persons, demographic and epidemiological transitions in developing countries like India have shown an increasing trend in the burden of various cancer cases including prostate cancer.